Paternity Test Family Test Basics
The Genetic Fingerprint
Every person can be differentiated from all other human beings by their inherited genetic information. This information is found in the Deoxyribonucleic Acid, DNA for short, and it is saved in your genetic profile. The DNA material is packed in Chromosomes and identical copies of this material is found in almost every part of the body.
It is possible to use almost any body material to find out the characteristic DNA profile of a person. Usually we use body cells that are painless to collect, like cells from the inside of your mouth, cells from blood, or hair cells, etc.
With a “genetic fingerprint” or DNA-Profile, it becomes possible to differentiate one person from practically all other human beings, just like the classic fingerprint from your fingertips. This way is more than sufficient for a genetic fingerprint to show a strong difference between each individual person while observing only a small number (8-25) of the chosen areas of a DNA structure. These chosen areas of DNA (also known as STRs) are specifically chosen because they come from part of our genes which are not responsible for certain qualities in a person's genes that can betray the result. In actual fact, the information responsible for our genetic qualities comes from an extremely small area of DNA (less than 1%).
Therefore the genetic fingerprint exclusively serves the purpose as a means of identifying a person, just like the traditional fingerprint. The genetic fingerprint does not even determine the sequence (the order of the DNA structure) of the STRs, but merely the length of the pattern. Due to the number and type of the STRs being examined, the length patterns become so individual that an almost complete level of accuracy in human identification is achieved. This is a level of accuracy that is at least equal to a traditional fingerprint, and more often the genetic fingerprint is superior.
Ancestry Analysis Using a “Genetic Fingerprint”
When doing an ancestry analysis using the genetic fingerprint you benefit from the biological fact and basic principal that a child has inherited one half of its chromosomes from the mother, and the other half from the father.
At first you would think the logical consequences would be that a man could only come to question being the biological father if half of the child's DNA areas (so called STRs) have the same length patterns as his STRs. Actually, the situation isn't that simple, due to changes and mutation of the DNA there can be some discrepancies. Therefore, it has been established that at least three of the child's length pattern STRs inherited from the father have to be different from those from the so believed father, making it possible to exclude absolutely all probability of him being the father.
For this purpose, you must include enough STRs from the so believed father's and the child's genetic fingerprints.
Galantos Genetics analyses by default the lengths of 16 STRs, but enhances this number up to 23, if certain biological relationships require it. This simplifies the classification of the fathers STRs and enhances the accuracy of the test result, if the mothers' genetic finger print is included. Therefore our Family Test also includes all utensils required for the mother's DNA test samples.
The closer two people are related to each other, the more similar the STRs length patterns. For example, the STRs length patterns of identical twins are more alike than those from normal siblings or half-siblings or other relatives. The exact distribution pattern of the STRs lengths are stipulated in a genetic table. From this we are able to calculate the probability of a genetic match.
Galantos Genetics uses specified criteria from the German Federal Medical Chambers, the Robert-Koch Institute, the American State of Illinois and several other scientific publications, to calculate the probability of being the father or other possibilities of family relationships. The calculated probability and the statement we send will be explained to you in a very clear and easy to understand presentation.
How Accurate is a Genetic Match?
In most cases, 8 examined STRs are enough to safely guarantee fatherhood with a 99.99% probability. Galantos Genetics generally examines 16 STRs and in special cases, up to 23 STRs. Consequently, we achieve well over a secure 99.9999% match of fatherhood. As a general rule, Galantos Genetics secures you at the very least a 99.99% match of fatherhood. This is like saying that it would take another 10,000 tested STR profiles to produce even one of a similar pattern to the identified father. If for some reason we cannot produce this high expectation of security, we will offer to follow through with further tests or give you a full refund.
How Does One Acquire the Material Needed for a DNA Test?
From each test person (child, parent) we require a small cell sample. Because it is so simple and absolute pain free (rubbing the roof of the mouth or inner cheek with a q-tip) we have produced a Test Set that we send to you free of charge. The Test Set also includes a detailed description of what to do, including instructional pictures. You can also watch a video of how to take a test sample right here on our website. The process of collecting cells for the test sample is worry free, quick, simple and easy to do. That's why we do not recommend that you send us blood samples, chewing gum, toothbrushes, pacifiers, pulled out hair, etc., although we could also use these things to remove the necessary DNA material. Please feel free to contact us beforehand should you require DNA analysis from these or any other alternative methods. Vaterschaftstest, Paternitytest, Vaterschaftstest, Paternitytest, Vaterschaftstest, Paternitytest, Vaterschaftstest, Paternitytest